The PHACS Scientific Leadership Group have created eight working groups, responsible for close examination of the data in their domain. They are also responsible for the development of abstracts for presentation and manuscript publication. Click below for a description of each Working Group, contact information for the Chair(s), and a link to its published research.
Adolescents and Young Adults Working Group
Chair: Claude Mellins, PhD, Professor of Clinical Psychology, Columbia University
Chair: Barbara Moscicki, MD, Professor of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles
Chair: Katherine Tassiopoulos, DSc, Senior Research Scientist, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
The primary aims of the Adolescents and Young Adults Working Group are to: define the impact of perinatal HIV infection and ARV exposure on behavioral health outcomes including sexual behaviors, substance use, mental health, independent living skills, vocational/educational achievement, and social relationships, as PHIV and PHEU youth transition through adolescence and young adulthood; determine the prevalence and incidence of reproductive health outcomes including pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, menstrual irregularity and precancerous HSIL; and, among PHIV adolescents and young adults, to describe the individual, social, and health care system barriers and facilitators of (a) transitioning from pediatric to adult health care, (b) adherence to medications and retention in health care, and (c) physical and mental health. Examples of analyses the working group has undertaken include examining the co-occurrence of sexual, substance use, and mental health behavior risks in PHIV and PHEU youth; understanding the association between exposure to violence and virologic and immunological outcomes in PHIV youth; identifying factors associated with initiation of sexual activity and unprotected sex among PHIV youth; estimating the agreement between self-reported measures of antiretroviral treatment adherence and HIV RNA viral load; examining the prevalence of and risk factors for substance use among PHIV and PHEU youth; and a comparison of HPV antibodies and effectiveness between HPV-vaccinated PHIV and PHEU youth.
1. Moscicki AB, Karalius K, Tassiopoulos K, Yao TJ, Jacobson DL, Patel K, Purswani M,Seage GR III, for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) antibody levels and quadrivalent vaccine clinical effectiveness in perinatally-HIV infected and exposed, uninfected youth. CID 2018.
4. Tassiopoulos K, Moscicki B, Mellins C, Kacanek D, Malee K, Allison S, Hazra R, Siberry G, Smith R, Paul M, Van Dyke R, and Seage GR III for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Sexual risk behavior among youth with perinatal HIV infection in the US: Predictors and implications for intervention development. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56(2):283-90. PMCID: PMC3526253. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23139252
Cardiopulmonary Working Group
Chair: Engi Attia, MD, PhD, Acting Assistant Professor, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of Washington
Chair: Steven Lipshultz, MD, A. Conger Goodyear Professor and Chair, Department of Pediatrics, University at Buffalo
Chair: Paige Williams, PhD, Senior Statistician, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
The primary aims of the Cardiopulmonary Working Group (CPWG) are (1) to evaluate the effects of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment on cardiac and pulmonary function in children and adolescents with perinatally-acquired HIV infection or perinatally-exposed to HIV but uninfected, and (2) to evaluate the safety of ARV treatment given to HIV-infected pregnant women on cardiac and pulmonary health of their children. The CPWG is comprised of 10-20 experts in cardiology, pulmonary medicine, immunology, pediatrics, biostatistics, and epidemiology.
Some of the past projects include evaluation of serum biomarkers of cardiac function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children, echocardiographic measures of cardiovascular function and structure, and pulmonary function tests of HIV-infected and HEU children. In terms of cardiovascular objectives, we have evaluated predictors of elevated cardiac biomarkers (such as C-reactive protein), and demonstrated associations of these biomarkers with echocardiographic measures among HEU children in the SMARTT study. We have also shown that HIV-infected children have marked improvement in cardiac functioning based on echocardiographic measures as compared to HIV+ cohorts studied earlier in the HIV epidemic, but still show some differences from HEU children of similar ages in the PHACS AMP study. In terms of pulmonary functioning, members of this working group demonstrated an increased risk of asthma in the HIV+ children in AMP as compared to the HEU controls. This finding stimulated a subgroup of this working group to initiate a separate PHACS substudy, the Ancillary Pulmonary Complication of HIV Infection study, which has conducted pulmonary function testing on a subset of AMP participants in order to better understand the role of HIV in asthma and other pulmonary diseases.
The Cardiopulmonary Working Group has also coordinated with other working groups to participate in specific concepts with overlapping interests. For example, the WG collaborated with the Metabolic, Nutrition, and Growth Working Group on an analysis of cardiac risk factors in adolescents aged 15 or older, based on risk prediction models. The creation of a DNA library on PHACS subjects also was strongly endorsed by the Cardiopulmonary Working Group.
New directions of future research include proposals to evaluate the relationship of echocardiogram parameters among children in the AMP study with both cardiac biomarkers and vitamin D. In addition, there is great interest in studying the genotype of HIV+ and HEU children in the PHACS AMP studies to better understand whether certain mutations may predispose patients to cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. These proposed genetic studies will take the PHACS program well into the next era of HIV medicine, namely the role of genetics in diagnosis and management of HIV infection in children, adolescents, and young adults.
The Cardiopulmonary Working Group collected research data on numerous measurements pertinent to its special interests in areas of cardiology, pulmonology, immunology, and genetics. The measurements includes data from echocardiography, pulse oximetry, pulmonary function testing, carbon monoxide diffusion studies in lung tissue, immunological tests of structure and function of peripheral blood, T, B, NK, and monocytes, and DNA sequencing. Statistical analysis is provided by the Harvard School of Public Health.
1. Lipshultz SE, Williams PL, Wilkinson JD, et al for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Cardiac status of HIV-infected children treated with long-term combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Adolescent Master Protocol of the NIH multicentre Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. JAMA Pediatrics 2013; 167(6):520-7; PMCID: PMC4180681. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23608879
4. Shearer WT, Jacobson DL, Yu W, et al for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Long-term pulmonary complications in perinatally HIV-infected youth. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017; pii: S0091-6749(17)30336-6.PMCID: PMC 5587357. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28279683
Complications Working Group
Chair: Kunjal Patel, DSc, MPH, Senior Research Scientist, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
Chair: Russell Van Dyke, MD,Principal Investigator, PHACS Coordinating Center, Tulane University
The primary aim of the Complications working group is to identify infectious and non-infectious complications of HIV disease and evaluate their associations with antiretroviral therapy. Our working group therefore focuses on the AMP and AMP Up protocols of PHACS which include youth and young adults with perinatal HIV-infection and a comparison group of perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected participants. Examples of our working group activities include examining trends in antiretroviral drug use, CD4 counts, HIV viral loads, and diagnoses; evaluating long-term treatment management strategies in the context of antiretroviral treatment failure, drug resistance and HIV tropism; comparing the effectiveness of vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and human papillomavirus among infected and uninfected youth and identifying correlates of effective immune responses; examining the relationship between tenofovir use and renal disease; estimating the prevalence of liver disease; examining oral health including the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease; identifying biomarkers of low proviral load to inform future cure and therapeutic vaccine strategies; and establishing a DNA repository for genomic studies. Our working group has also collaborated with international pediatric cohorts to answer research questions relevant to the global perinatal HIV epidemic.
1. Siberry GK, Patel K, Bellini W, Karalius B, Purswani M, Burchett SK, Meyer WA III, Sowers SB, Ellis A, and Van Dyke RB for the Pediatric HIV AIDS Cohort Study. Immunity to measles, mumps and rubella in us children with perinatal HIV infection or perinatal HIV exposure without infection. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 61(6):988-95; PMCID: PMC4551008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26060291
2. Purswani MU, Karalius B, Yao TJ, Schmid DS, Burchett SK, Siberry GK, Patel K, Van Dyke RB, & Yogev R, for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Prevalence and persistence of varicella antibodies in previously immunized children and youth with perinatal HIV-1-infection. Clinical Infectious Disease 2016; 62(1):106-14; PMCID: PMC4678104. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26385992
3. Van Dyke RB, Patel K, Kagan RM, Karalius B, Traite S, Meyer WA 3rd, Tassiopoulos KK, Seage GR III, Seybolt LM, Burchett S, and Hazra R for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). Antiretroviral drug resistance among children and youth in the U.S. with perinatal HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2016; 63(1):133-7; PMCID: PMC4901868. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27056398
4. Moscicki A-B, Yao T-J, Ryder MI, Russell JS, Dominy SS, Patel K, McKenna M, Van Dyke RB, Seage GR III, Hazra R, and Shiboski C for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. The burden of oral disease among perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected youth. PLoS One 2016; 11(6); PMCID: PMC4907464. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27299992
5. Uprety P, Patel K, Karalius B, Ziemniak C, Chen HY, Brummel S, Siminski S, Van Dyke RB, Seage GR III and Persaud D for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. HIV-1 DNA decay dynamics with early, long-term virologic control of perinatal infection. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 64(11):1471-1478. PMCID: PMC 5434384. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28329153
6. Neilan AM, Karalius B, Patel K, Van Dyke RB, Abzug MJ, Agwu AL, Williams PL, Purswani M, Kacanek D, Oleske JM, Burchett SK, Wiznia A, Chernoff M, Seage GR III, and Ciaranello AL,for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study and the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network. Association of risk of viremia, immunosuppression, serious clinical events, and mortality with increasing age in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected youth. JAMA Peds 2017; 171(5):450-460.PMCID: PMC 5411314. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28346597
7. Moscicki AB, Karalius B, Tassiopoulos K, Yao TJ, Jacobson DL, Patel K, Purswani M, and Seage III GR for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) antibody levels and quadravalent vaccine clinical effectiveness in perinatally-HIV infected and exposed, uninfected youth. Accepted by CID
Hearing and Language Working Group
Chair: Mabel Rice, PhD, Distinguished Professor, Child Language Doctoral Program, University of Kansas
Chair: Peter Torre, PhD, Associate Professor, School of Speech, Language, and Hearing Science, San Diego State University
Chair: Tzy-Jyun Yao, PhD, Senior Statistician, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
The Hearing/Language Working Group is a team of hearing scientists, speech/language pathologists, pediatricians, psychologists, epidemiologists and statisticians whose main goal is to examine the effects of HIV and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposures on hearing and/or language acquisition in youth who were exposed to HIV or infected perinatally. Examples of our working group activities include investigations of hearing mechanisms, language acquisition in infants and toddlers, risk for and consistency of language impairments in school-aged children, and the persistence of language impairments into adulthood. We are also interested in the safety of ART treatment and in the effects of congenital infections and other comorbid maternal conditions on language development and hearing outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children.
1. Rice M, Buchanan A, Siberry G, Malee K, Zeldow B, Frederick T, Purswani M, Hoffman H, Sirois P, Smith R, Torre P, Allison S, and Williams P for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Language impairment in children perinatally infected with HIV compared to children who were HIV-exposed and uninfected. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2012; 33(2):112-23. PMCID: PMC3310927. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22179050
2. Torre III P, Zeldow B, Hoffman HJ, Buchanan AL, Siberry GK, Rice ML, Sirois PA,Williams PL. Hearing loss in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012; 31(8): 835-841. PMCID: 3410657. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549437
3. Redmond SM, Yao T-J, Russell JS, Rice ML, Hoffman HJ, Siberry GK, Frederick T, Purswani M, and Williams PL for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Longitudinal evaluation of language impairment in youth with perinatally acquired HIV and youth who were perinatally exposed to HIV and uninfected. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2016; 5(suppl 1): S33-S40. PMCID: PMC5181542. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27856674
4. Torre P, Zeldow B, Yao TJ, Hoffman HJ, Siberry GK, Purswani M, Frederick T, Spector SA, Williams PL for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Newborn hearing screenings in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed uninfected infants. J AIDS Immune Res. 2016; 1(1): 102. PMCID:PMC 5407375. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5407375/
5. Rice ML, Russell JS, Frederick T, Purswani M, Williams PL, Siberry GK, Redmond SM, Hoffman HJ, Yao TJ for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Risk for speech and language impairments in preschool age HIV-exposed uninfected children with in utero combination antiretroviral exposure. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018; 37:678–685. PMCID: PMC 5995619 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29278615
Maternal Exposures Working Group
Chair: Ellen Chadwick, MD, PHACS Principal Investigator, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
Chair: Deborah Kacanek, ScD, Social Epidemiologist, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
The Maternal Exposures Working Group examines the relationship of individual, clinical, and social factors during pregnancy and motherhood among women living with HIV to birth outcomes and health of their children. Our studies focus on evaluating associations of maternal HIV disease severity, use of specific antiretroviral drugs, maternal mental health and substance use with pregnancy outcomes (e.g., gestational age at birth, the size of the newborn, mode of delivery, subtle or major birth defects), as well as child health and development through young adulthood. As newer antiretroviral drugs are used more widely, we conduct studies to evaluate the safety of their use during pregnancy. We apply novel strategies to measure the amount of antiretroviral drugs that cross the placenta and into the fetus by examining presence in meconium (the first stools produced by the newborn) and maternal and infant hair. Our studies also seek to determine whether events that happen in pregnancy affect the genetics of the body (epigenetic studies) and the energy system of the cells (mitochondrial function).
1. Rough K, Seage GR III, Williams PL, Hernandez-Diaz S, Huo Y, Chadwick EG, Currier JS, Hoffman RM, Barr E, Shapiro DE, Patel K for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) and International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trial (IMPAACT) P1025 Study Teams. Birth outcomes for pregnant women with HIV using tenofovir-emtricitabine. N Engl J Med 2018; 378:1593-1603. PMCID: PMC5984044 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29694825
2. Jao J, Kacanek D, Williams PL, Geffner ME, Livingston EG, Sperling RS, Patel K, Bardequez AD, Burchett SK, Chakhtoura N, Scott GB, Van Dyke RB, Abrams EJ for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study and International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network. Birth weight and preterm delivery outcomes of perinatally vs. non-perinatally HIV-infected pregnant women in the U.S.: results from the PHACS SMARTT study and IMPAACT P1025 protocol. Clin Infect Dis 2017; 65(6):982-989. PMCID: PMC 5849107. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28575201
3. Williams PL, Hazra R, Van Dyke RB, Yildirim C, Crain MJ, Seage GR III, Civitello L, Ellis A, Butler L, Rich K for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Antiretroviral exposure during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected infants and children using a trigger-based design: The SMARTT Study. AIDS 2016; 30(1):133-44; PMCID: PMC4704129. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26731758
4. Caniglia EC, Patel K, Huo Y, Williams PL, Kapetanovic S, Rich K, Sirois PA, Jacobson DA, Hernandez-Diaz S, Hernan MA, Seage GR III for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Atazanavir exposure in utero and neurodevelopment in infants: A comparative safety study. AIDS 2016; 30(8):1267-78; PMCID: PMC4851579. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26867136
5. Williams PL, Crain M, Yildirim C, Hazra R, Van Dyke RB, Rich K, Read JS, Stuard E, Rathore M, Mendez HA, and Watts DH for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Congenital anomalies and in utero antiretroviral exposure in human immunodeficiency virus - exposed uninfected infants. JAMA Pediatrics 2014; 169(1):48-55. PMCID: PMC4286442. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383770
6. Watts DH, Williams PL, Kacanek D, Griner R, Rich K, Hazra, R, Mofenson, LM, Mendez, HA for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Combination Antiretroviral Use and Preterm Birth. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2013; 207(4):612-21. PMCID:PMC3549601.
Neurodevelopmental and Neurology Working Group
Chair: Rohan Hazra, MD, Chief of the Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch at the NICHD, NIH
Chair: Kay Malee, PhD, Psychologist, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
Chair: Renee Smith, PhD, Pediatric Research Psychologist, University of Illinois at Chicago
Chair: Katherine Tassiopoulos, DSc, Senior Research Scientist, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
The Neurodevelopmental and Neurology Working Group is a team of psychologists, psychiatrists, neurologists, pediatricians, epidemiologists and statisticians whose main goal is to examine the neurodevelopmental and neurological effects of HIV and/or antiretroviral medications (ARTs) on youth who were exposed or infected perinatally. We examine the potential short- and long-term consequences of exposure to or infection with HIV and its treatment on cognition, academic achievement, and on the neurological, emotional, and behavioral development of youth over time. We also examine how the environment and other possible stressors and/or protectors contribute to all of these developmental outcomes.
Metabolic, Nutrition, and Growth Working Group
Chair: Denise Jacobson, PhD, Senior Research Scientist, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
Chair: Jennifer Jao, MD, MPH, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
The primary aims of Nutrition-Growth-Metabolic Working Group are to investigate the effects of HIV and antiretroviral medications on aspects of nutrition, growth, and metabolism in children, youth and young adults living with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIV) and those who are perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU). We are also investigating nutrition and metabolic issues in pregnant women living with HIV and their effects on birth and child outcomes. In particular, we have published studies on distribution of fat mass, the prevalence and incidence of insulin resistance, pubertal onset, vascular markers of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease risk, bone mineral density, vitamin D and parathyroid levels and associations with bone density in PHIV compared to PHEU and mitochondrial abnormalities and insulin resistance, and changes in lipids after switching to newer protease inhibitor agents. In PHEU children we have published many studies evaluating growth and metabolic abnormalities associated with in utero antiretroviral medication exposure . Currently we are investigating fracture rates since birth, blood pressure and cardiac health, physical activity, lipid abnormalities, longitudinal assessments of bone growth, and mitochondrial abnormalities among individuals with PHIV, and among those with PHEU, growth patterns by preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and maternal PHIV status.
1. Sudfeld CR, Jacobson DL, Rueda NM, Neri D, Mendez AJ, Butler L, Siminski S, Hendricks KM, Mellins CA, Duggan CP, Miller TL for Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Third trimester vitamin D status is associated with birth outcomes and linear growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 Apr 1. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002041. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31021992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
2. Jao J, Jacobson DL, Yu W, Borkowsky W, Geffner ME, McFarland EJ, Patel K, Williams PL, Miller T; Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. A comparison of metabolic outcomes between obese HIV- exposed uninfected youth from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort SMARTT Study and HIV-unexposed youth from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). J Acquir Immun Defic Syndr 2019; in press. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30844997
3. Takemoto JK, Miller TL, Wang J, Jacobson DL, Geffner ME, Van Dyke RB, and Gerschenson M for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Insulin Resistance in HIV-Infected Youth is associated with decreased mitochondrial respiration. AIDS 2016. 31(1):15-23. PMCID: PMC 5131681. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27755108
4. DiMeglio L, Wang J, Siberry G, Miller T, Geffner M, Hazra R, Borkowsky W, Chen J, Dooley L, Patel K, Van Dyke R, Fielding R, Gurmu Y, and Jacobson D for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection. AIDS 2013; 27(2):211-20; PMCID: PMC4157938. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23032412
5. Jacobson D, Patel K, Siberry G, Van Dyke R, DiMeglio L, Geffner M, Chen J, McFarland E, Borkowsky W, Silio M, Fielding R, Siminski S, and Miller T for the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Body fat distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: outcomes from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 94(6):1485-95. PMCID: PMC3252548. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22049166
Women's Health Working Group
Chair: Lisa Haddad, MD, MS, MPH, Associate Professor, Emory University School of Medicine
Chair: Deborah Kacanek, ScD, Social Epidemiologist, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
Chair: Kate Powis, MD, Research Associate, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
The mission of the Women’s Health Working Group (WHWG) is to address the health and well-being of reproductive aged women living with or affected by HIV through impactful research driven by PHACS community members, including CAB members, study staff and investigators, and to support new investigators to conduct women’s health research. Working with women participating in SMARTT, AMP, AMP UP and AMP UP Lite protocols of PHACS, we foster collaborative research efforts to expand our understanding of health issues which have an impact on women living with HIV. Examples of research in progress include studies examining trends in ART prescribing patterns for pregnant women, determinants of viral suppression and CD4 in repeat pregnancies, substance use in pregnancy and in the postpartum period, associations of ART with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and relationship of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to weight gain during pregnancy and postpartum. The WHWG is committed to investigating biomedical, as well as social determinants of women’s physical health, mental health, and health-related behaviors to inform guidelines and policies to optimize the health of women living with or affected by HIV.